My heading is awesome


Race in the NoVa region

Arlington County Department of Community Planning, Housing and Development. 2016.  A Guide to African American Heritage of Arlington County, VA

Arlington Center for Local History. 

–– 2017.  Project DAPS: Exploring the Desegregation of Arlington Public Schools 

–– 2014. Green Valley/Nauck Heritage Project 

Bestebreurtje, Lindsey. 2017. “Built by the People Themselves–African American Community Development in Arlington, Virginia, from the Civil War through Civil Rights.” PhD. Dissertation, George Mason University.

Casper, Scott E. 2009. Sarah Johnson’s Mount Vernon: The Forgotten History of an American Shrine. New York: Hill & Wang.

Hanna, Stephen P. 2012. “Cartographic Memories of Slavery and Freedom: Examining John Washington’s Map and Mapping of Fredericksburg, Virginia.” Cartographica: The International Journal for Geographic Information and Geovisualization 47 (1): 50–63.

Moon, Krystyn. 2016. “The African American Housing Crisis in Alexandria, Virginia, 1930s-1960s.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 124 (1): 28–68.

– – -. 2014.  “Finding the Fort: African American History and Memory at Fort Ward Historic Park.” Alexandria Archaeology, Office of Historic Alexandria, July 2014.

– – -. 2019. “From Arlandria to Chirilagua: The Shifting Demographics of a Northern Virginia Neighborhood.” The Metropole (Official Blog of the Urban History Association).

Moore, Jacqueline M. 1999. Leading the Race: The Transformation of the Black Elite in the Nation’s Capital, 1880-1920. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.

Perry, Nancy. 2015. “Eminent Domain Destroys a Community: Leveling East Arlington to Make Way for the Pentagon.” Urban Geography 37 (1): 141–61. 

Perry, Nancy, L. Earle Reybold, and Nigel Waters. 2014. “‘Everybody Was Looking for a Good Government Job: Occupational Choice during Segregation in Arlington, Virginia.” Journal of Urban History 40 (4): 719–41. 

Perry, Nancy, Spencer Crew, and Nigel M. Waters. 2013. “We Didn’t Have Any Other Place to Live: Residential Patterns in Segregated Arlington County, Virginia.” Southeastern Geographer 53 (4): 403–27.

Yellin, Eric S. 2013. Racism in the Nation’s Service: Government Workers and the Color Line in Woodrow Wilson’s America. Chapel Hill: University Of North Carolina Press.

Residential Segregation

Bonastia, Christopher. 2010. Knocking on the Door the Federal Government’s Attempt to Desegregate the Suburbs . Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Brooks, Richard R. W., and Carol M. Rose. 2013. Saving the Neighborhood: Racially Restrictive Covenants, Law, and Social Norms. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Delaney, David. 2010. Race, Place, and the Law, 1836-1948. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Freund, David M. P. 2007. Colored Property: State Policy and White Racial Politics in Suburban America. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press.

Gonda, Jeffrey D. 2015. Unjust Deeds: The Restrictive Covenant Cases and the Making of the Civil Rights Movement. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Gordon, Colin. 2008. Mapping Decline St. Louis and the Fate of the American City. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Gordon, Colin. 2023. Patchwork Apartheid: Private Restriction, Racial Segregation and Urban Inequality. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. 

Rothstein, Richard. 2017. The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America. New York: Liveright Publishing Corporation.

Santucci, Larry. 2020. “Documenting Racially Restrictive Covenants in 20th Century Philadelphia.” Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research 22 (3): 241–68. 

Taylor, Keeanga-Yamahtta. 2019. Race for Profit: How Banks and the Real Estate Industry Undermined Black Homeownership. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Teaford, Jon C. 1990. The Rough Road to Renaissance: Urban Revitalization in America, 1940-1985. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

African American Land Ownership

DuBois, W. E. B. 1897. “The Strivings of the Negro People.” The Atlantic, 1897. Accessed November 13, 2022.

DuBois, W.E.B. (1903) 2018. The Souls of Black Folk. Scotts Valley, CA: CreateSpace Independent Publishing.

Freund, David M. P. 2007. Colored Property: State Policy and White Racial Politics in Suburban America. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press.

Gatewood, Willard B. 1990. Aristocrats of Color: The Black Elite, 1880-1920 . Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press.

McKittrick, Katherine. 2011. “On Plantations, Prisons, and a Black Sense of Place.” Social & Cultural Geography 12 (8): 947–63.

McKittrick, Katherine, and Clyde Adrian Woods, eds. 2007. Black Geographies and the Politics of Place. Toronto: Between the Lines.

Penningroth, Dylan C. 2004. The Claims of Kinfolk: African American Property and Community in the Nineteenth-Century South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Wiese, Andrew. 2005. Places of Their Own: African American Suburbanization in the Twentieth Century. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press.

Mapping Racial Restrictions

Ann Arbor, Michigan – Justice InDeed

Charlottesville/Albemarle County, Virginia – Mapping Albemarle–Mapping Cville

Chicago, Illinois – Chicago Covenants

District of Columbia – Mapping Segregation in Washington, D.C.

Hampton Roads, Virginia – Living Together, Living Apart

Iowa – Mapping Segregation

Minneapolis, Minnesota – Mapping Prejudice

Montgomery County, Maryland – Mapping Segregation

Richmond, Virginia – Mapping Inequality

Seattle, Washington – Segregated Seattle

St. Louis, Missouri – Dividing the City

Tucson, Arizona – Mapping Racist Covenants

Oral History Collections

City of Alexandria –  The Oral History Archive

Arlington Public Library – Center for Local History    Oral History Transcripts

1 00 years of Black Falls Church

Northern Virginia Civil Rights Archive – Oral Histories

Fairfax County – Virginia Room – Oral Histories